Endocrine System

Other Endocrine Glands

Contributors
Christian Bien Portrait_edited.jpg

Ben Whitten

tutorial.png

one.png
What are the other endocrine glands?
Slide1.jpeg
  • Pineal gland – Located deep inside the brain, and gradually decreases in size after puberty; it secretes melatonin, a hormone involved in the regulation of sleep patterns which is influenced by darkness and inhibited by light

  • Thyroid gland – Located in the neck, consisting of two lobes that lie on either side of the trachea; controlled by the pituitary gland – secretes T3 (triiodothyronine) and T4(thyroxine) which are involved in thermoregulation (a form of homeostasis)

  • Parathyroid gland – There are four parathyroid glands usually (some people have more), each about the size of a pea and embedded in the rear surface of the lobes of the thyroid; secretes parathyroid hormone, which triggers calcium release into the blood

  • Thymus gland – Located in the chest, above the heart and behind the sternum; largest in infant and children, but begins to shrink after puberty; responsible for the development of the immune system – secretes thymosins, which stimulates the development of T lymphocytes

  • Pancreas – Lies just below the stomach and alongside the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine; it acts as an exocrine and endocrine gland; the pancreas contains specialised cells called islets of Langerhans which controls blood glucose levels by secreting glucagon and insulin which work together to maintain blood glucose levels

  • Adrenal glands – help body respond to stress and control blood pressure, by secreting aldosterone (found in the adrenal cortex), and adrenaline and noradrenaline found in the adrenal medulla

  • Adrenal medulla – Hormones produced are adrenaline and noradrenaline; adrenaline has a similar effect to that of the sympathetic division of the nervous system, as it prepares the body for the fight-or-flight response; noradrenaline has a similar effect, increasing the rate and force of the heartbeat

  • Adrenal cortex – Produces more than 20 hormones, collectively known as corticosteroids; two main ones are aldosterone, which acts on the kidney to reduce the amount of sodium and increase the amount of potassium in urine, and cortisol which helps the body to withstand stress by raising blood glucose levels and assisting in the repair of damaged tissues

  • Gonad gland (ovaries) – Produces progesterone and estrogen which promote the healthy development of female sex characteristics during puberty, and encourages fertility

  • Gonad gland (testes) – Produces male sex hormones; secretes testosterone, the hormone involved in masculine development

two.png
What hormones are secreted by other endocrine glands?
Slide2.jpeg
Topic Menu
Endocrine System
Types of Hormones
Enzyme Amplification and Hormone Clearance
The Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland
Pituitary Gland Hormones
Other Endocrine Glands
Students Walking Up Stairs_edited.jpg

Want your ATAR notes to empower over 77,000 students per year?

Logo-New-Large.png

Join the Team.
Empower Education.

three.png

Sign Up for Free to Read More 

Get instant access to all content and subscribe to our weekly email list on study tips, opportunities and other free resources. 

It only takes a minute...

Slide3.jpeg
four.png
Slide4.jpeg
five.png
Slide5.jpeg
six.png
Slide6.jpeg
157-seven.png
Slide1.jpeg
156-eight.png
Slide8.jpeg