Overview of Russia

Timeline (U3)

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Ben Whitten

Learning Objectives

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Timeline
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The timeline of the unit is crucial knowledge, as it can get easy to get lost in the unit regarding the timing of events. Refer to this as needed.
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Revolution (1917)
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22-28 February

● Workers strike in Petrograd, kickstarting the February Revolution.

● The Provisional Government and Petrograd Soviet form.

2 March

● Tsar Nicholas II abdicates as leader of Russia.

3 April

● Lenin returns to Russia and delivers his April Theses.

18 June

● The Kerensky Offensive takes place.

24-31 August

● The Kornilov Affair.

25 October

● The Bolsheviks seize power in the October Revolution.

26 October

● The Council of People’s Commissars (SOVNARKOM) is established.

December

● The Extraordinary Commission against Counter-Revolution, Sabotage and Speculation (Cheka) is created.

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Civil War (1918-21)
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March 1918

● The Bolsheviks sign the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk to end Russian involvement in WWI.

● The Bolshevik Party is renamed the Communist Party.

● The capital is moved from Petrograd to Moscow.

● The Russian Civil War begins (between the Red and White Armies).

Mid-1918

● War Communism is introduced.

July 1918

● The Romanovs are murdered.

August 1918

● Assassination attempt on Lenin.

March 1921

● The Russian Civil War ends in Red victory.

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Economic Turbulence (1921-28)
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March 1921

● The Kronstadt Rebellion.

● The New Economic Policy is introduced.

February 1922

● The Cheka becomes the GPU.

March 1922

● Joseph Stalin becomes General Secretary of the Communist Party.

April 1922

● The Treaty of Rapallo is signed with Germany.

December 1922

● The USSR is created.

● Lenin dictates his Political Testament.

1924

● Lenin dies.

● The Bolshevik power struggle begins.

● Stalin announces Socialism in One Country.

1926

● Trotsky, Kamenev and Zinoviev are expelled from the Politburo.

1927

Stalin expels Bukharin, Rykov and Tomsky from the Politburo, becoming the sole leader of the USSR.

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Stalinism (1928-39)
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1929

● First Five Year Plan

● Mass collectivisation begins.

1931

● Stalin’s Cultural Revolution begins.

1932

● Famine in Ukraine kills millions.

1933

● Second Five Year Plan.

1936

● The Stalinist Constitution is created.

1937

● Third Five Year Plan.

1938

● Several old Bolsheviks (such as Bukharin and Rykov) are publicly tried and executed as part of Stalin’s Great Terror.

● Purges and show trials are common and ongoing throughout Stalin’s rule.

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World War II (1939-45)
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23 August 1939

● Stalin signs the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact with Germany.

September 1939

● Germany invades Poland, beginning World War II.

● Later in September, the USSR invades East Poland in line with the conditions mapped out in the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact.

November 1939–March 1940

● The Russo-Finnish War.

June 1941

● Germany invades the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa.

● Stalin joins forces with the USA and Britain to form the Grand Alliance.

1945

● WWII ends in Allied victory.

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