Overview of Russia
● Workers strike in Petrograd, kickstarting the February Revolution.
● The Provisional Government and Petrograd Soviet form.
● Tsar Nicholas II abdicates as leader of Russia.
● Lenin returns to Russia and delivers his April Theses.
● The Kerensky Offensive takes place.
● The Kornilov Affair.
● The Bolsheviks seize power in the October Revolution.
● The Council of People’s Commissars (SOVNARKOM) is established.
● The Extraordinary Commission against Counter-Revolution, Sabotage and Speculation (Cheka) is created.
Civil War (1918-21)
● The Bolsheviks sign the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk to end Russian involvement in WWI.
● The Bolshevik Party is renamed the Communist Party.
● The capital is moved from Petrograd to Moscow.
● The Russian Civil War begins (between the Red and White Armies).
● War Communism is introduced.
● The Romanovs are murdered.
● Assassination attempt on Lenin.
● The Russian Civil War ends in Red victory.
Economic Turbulence (1921-28)
● The Kronstadt Rebellion.
● The New Economic Policy is introduced.
● The Cheka becomes the GPU.
● Joseph Stalin becomes General Secretary of the Communist Party.
● The Treaty of Rapallo is signed with Germany.
● The USSR is created.
● Lenin dictates his Political Testament.
● Lenin dies.
● The Bolshevik power struggle begins.
● Stalin announces Socialism in One Country.
● Trotsky, Kamenev and Zinoviev are expelled from the Politburo.
Stalin expels Bukharin, Rykov and Tomsky from the Politburo, becoming the sole leader of the USSR.
● First Five Year Plan
● Mass collectivisation begins.
● Stalin’s Cultural Revolution begins.
● Famine in Ukraine kills millions.
● Second Five Year Plan.
● The Stalinist Constitution is created.
● Third Five Year Plan.
● Several old Bolsheviks (such as Bukharin and Rykov) are publicly tried and executed as part of Stalin’s Great Terror.
● Purges and show trials are common and ongoing throughout Stalin’s rule.
World War II (1939-45)
23 August 1939
● Stalin signs the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact with Germany.
● Germany invades Poland, beginning World War II.
● Later in September, the USSR invades East Poland in line with the conditions mapped out in the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact.
November 1939–March 1940
● The Russo-Finnish War.
● Germany invades the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa.
● Stalin joins forces with the USA and Britain to form the Grand Alliance.
● WWII ends in Allied victory.