Unemployment

Types of Unemployment

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Carys Brown

Learning Objectives

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Cyclical Unemployment
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Cyclical unemployment refers to the business cycle. During a trough, when Australia's output is below the GDP target, unemployment rates will be high. Those who are unemployed during periods of low economic growth are said to be experiencing cyclical unemployment, meaning that during periods of high economic output, or a boom, they are more likely to find a job. 

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Frictional Unemployment
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Frictional unemployment refers to the period of unemployment people experience when switching between jobs. This is not a major concern for economists as it is usually short-term and is a sign of confidence in employees to switch jobs and companies. 

Millennials are coined the 'job-hopping generation' with over 60% stating that they are 'open to new job opportunities. 

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Seasonal Unemployment
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Seasonal unemployment occurs with jobs that are popular during a particular season. For example, a summer water park will only employ people during the summer months that it is open for. Therefore, during the winter months, employees are considered seasonally unemployed. 

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Structural Unemployment
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When skills are lost or no longer in demand, it can cause a structural shift in the economy. For instance, before Australia become a nation based primarily on the mining sector, we were considered an agricultural society. However, farming skills are less in demand and therefore those unable to find a job in that sector, are considered structurally unemployed. Another example of this included skills being replaced with growing technological advancements. 

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The Natural Rate of Unemployment
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When discussing the natural rate of unemployment, economists are referring to all types of unemployment except cyclical unemployment. This means that they are looking at 

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