Volumetric Analysis

Volumetric Analysis and Standard Solutions

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Content Contributors
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Adi Manocha

Learning Objectives

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Purpose of Volumetric Analysis
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Volumetric analysis is used for determining the concentration of a solution (with an unkown concentration). This is done by reacting the solution with a standard solution (solution of known concentration) and comparing volumes/moles to determine concentration.


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Standard Solutions
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Standard solutions are solutions of known concentration, they can be either primary or secondary standard solutions

  

Primary Standard Solutions

Primary standard solutions are prepared from a known quantity of a primary standar, they are made using a volumetric flask filled with water


Primary standards are pure substances


Criteria for a Primary Standard: 

4 Characteristics:

  • 1) Pure w/ a known formula

  • 2) Soluble in water

  • 3) Stable, meaning it does not:

  • react with itself (decompose) e.g. $\sf\small KMnO_4$

  • react with chemicals in the air e.g. $\sf\small NaOH

  • react with water, meaning it is not:

  1. deliquescent (does not absorb moisture from the air) e.g. NaOH

  2. hydroscopic () e.g. HCl

  3. efflorescent e.g. Na ₂CO₃.10H₂O. 

  • 4) High molar mass (decreasing random error)⇒ weighing scale does not accurately or consistently show mass (rounds up/down)

This leaves 2 suitable compounds: 

  1. NaCO₃ 

  2. H₂C₂O₄.2H₂O (the H₂O increases molar mass)


Secondary Standard Solution

⇒ Solution whose concentration is established by reacting it with a standard solution (”standardising”) Secondary Standards are obtained through titration

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Volumetric Analysis and Standard Solutions
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